At this time

point, TLR9 (+) cells increased significantl

At this time

point, TLR9 (+) cells increased significantly (p < 0.01) in both treated groups (Lc-S and Lc-S-Lc), compared to the untreated control (C) (Figure 3D). TLR4 (+) cells increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the infection control group (S) and in mice fed continuously with the probiotic strain (Lc-S-Lc) compared to the untreated control (C), (Figure 3B). For 10 days post challenge, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 (+) cells of mice from infected groups (S, Lc-S and Lc-S-Lc) showed values similar to the untreated control (C), (Figure 3A, B and 3D). For TLR5 the mice from the group Lc-S-Lc maintained significantly increased (p < 0.01) the expression of this receptor in comparison with the untreated control (C), (Figure 3C). Figure 3 Determination selleck products of TLRs (+) cells in histological sections of small intestine. The samples Tucidinostat research buy were obtained before the infection for the untreated control (C) and healthy mice

given L. casei CRL431 (Lc group), and 7 and 10 days post challenge for all experimental groups. The number of fluorescent cells was counted in 30 fields of vision at 1 000X of magnification and the results were expressed as the number of PND-1186 supplier positive cells counted per 10 fields. The microphotographs (400×) F and H show the increases of TLR2+ and TLR4+ cells, respectively (fluorescent cells) in mice from Lc group compared to the untreated control (C group: E for TLR2 and G for TLR4). Means for each value without a common letter differ significantly (P < 0.01). Discussion A previous mafosfamide work demonstrated that L. casei CRL 431 administration induced activation of the immune cells associated to the small intestine of mice that received the probiotic strain [4]. We also

observed that this probiotic strain decreased the severity of S. Typhimurium infection in a mouse model, showing the continuous administration, the best effect. Continous probiotic administration decreased the mortality percentage (ten times) and the CFU/g of Salmonella in liver, spleen and large intestine for 7 and 10 days post- infection [7]. In the present work, some immune mechanisms by which L. casei CRL 431 administration exerts its protective effect against Salmonella infection were analyzed, as the intestinal cytokine profile in the inductor (Peyer’s patches) and effector sites (lamina propria) of the gut immune response. The modulation of TLRs expressions was also determined in the small intestine tissues. Previous to the infection, analyzing the mononuclear cells isolated from Peyer’s patches, it was observed that mice fed 7 days with L. casei CRL 431 significantly increased cytokines expression and also the release of IFNγ and IL-10 by these cells.

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