“A comparative study was performed to identify and classif

“A comparative study was performed to identify and classify traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) of the genus Clematis by applying chemometric and numerical methodologies. In the analysis, 12 species representing major TCM plants of TH-302 mouse the genus and belonging to five different sections – Rectae, Clematis, Meclatis, Tubulosae and Viorna – were identified and demarcated on the basis of morphological and

phytochemical characters. In the numerical study (NS), out of 53 selected characters, only 27 phylogenetically informative characters were used for data generation; a phenogram was produced with three distinctive clades. The extent of genetic distances ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The phytochemical analysis (PA) was conducted using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and ESI-MS mode. The compound oHuzhangoside GSK3235025 clinical trial Do (HGD) was the most abundant in the analysed species of the genus. The PA of saponins produced a differential matrix based on the presence or absence of chemical characters, which generated

a phenogram. The extent of genetic distances ranged from 0.05 to 0.35 in the phytochemical analysis, with three distinctive clades. Clematis intricata had compounds (HGB, HGD) with GD 0.30, and produced a different pattern of clustering than the previous classification system. The species C. henryi and C. heracleifolia appeared as sister clades having congruent genetic similarity with each other; this

is an innovative combination. The classification results of PA and NS approaches corroborate each other, but the chemical fingerprinting method proved more authentic, quick and reliable for the identification and classification of these plant taxa.”
“Genetic variation and clonal diversity of seven natural populations of the rare, highly clonal marsh herb Sagittaria lichuanensis were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Of the sixty-five ISSR primers screened, seven produced highly reproducible bands. Using these primers, a total of 76 DNA fragments were generated with 22 (29.0%) being polymorphic, indicating lower genetic variation at the species level compared to others in the same genus. With the use of 22 polymorphic markers, we were able to identify 9 genets Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist among the 231 samples analyzed. The proportion of distinguishable genets (PD: mean 0.039), Simpson’s diversity index (D: mean 0.309), and evenness (E: mean 0.292) exhibited low levels of clonal diversity compared to other clonal plants. The result implies that sexual reproduction might not have played an important role in these populations. The founder effect or the bottleneck effect could be responsible for the current pattern of the genetic variation revealed in S. lichuanensis populations.”
“Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease. Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening is considered feature of airway remodelling (AR) particularly in severe asthma (SA).

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