These development scenarios are not intended to predict the potential locations of future groundwater wells. The volume of water required for each well pad is the product of the number of wells developed on the site and the volume of water each well requires. Between 4 and 9 wells could be accommodated on each well pad based on New York spacing requirements. Approximately 3–4 Mgal of water is required for each well according to predicted averages (NYSDEC, 2011); these volumes account for the fraction of injected water which may be derived
from the flowback of previously developed wells. In these simulations, between 12 and 32 Mgal of water represents the range of possible water volumes withdrawn for each well pad. This range allows flexibility in the absolute number of wells or volume buy TSA HDAC of water required per well. For example, if 4 wells are developed on a well pad with each using 8 Mgal of
water, the maximum water volume in the scenario range is met. If 8 wells are developed on a well pad with each using 4 Mgal of water, the maximum water volume in the scenario range is likewise met. There are two modes of comparison between the baseline model and the various withdrawal scenarios. The baseline model simply refers to the calibrated MODFLOW model in which current pre-development pumping conditions are at steady-state, while the various withdrawal scenarios are individual models with different pumping/withdrawal conditions applied to each. Pre-development pumping refers only to current rates of
groundwater pumping from click here municipal water supply wells. Any change in the water table will be evaluated in the form of a head difference map – hydraulic head in Palmatine every model cell in the scenario simulation is subtracted from its counterpart in the baseline model. Every cell in the model domain is therefore attributed a number, with positive values indicating a rise in the water table across that cell and negative values indicating a decline in the water table across that cell. No change to the water table after pumping/withdrawal simulations is interpreted from any zero-value cell in the model domain. Additionally, any cell with a value within 25 cm of zero change was also considered no change due to model variability. The second mode of comparison between the baseline model and the various scenario simulations is the percent change in stream flow. As a result of uniform groundwater recharge under the steady state modeling assumption any change in stream flow under a given development scenario represents the change in groundwater discharge to streams, or base flow. Although surface water modeling would emphasize change to total stream flow, assessing percent change through this technique does not depend absolutely on the accuracy of stream flow in the baseline model.