, 2011 and Nagl et al., 2012). The European Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) performed a risk assessment on ZEN and concluded a temporary TDI of 0.2 μg/kg bodyweight ( SCF, 2000). These TDI values have been an important basis for the current mycotoxin legislation established in the European Union which are designed to protect consumers to exceed the TDI. Human DON and ZEN metabolism was rarely investigated in the past, mainly due to very low concentrations that occur in biological fluids following exposure via contaminated food. Extensive studies on the excretion profiles
of DON in different animal species were conducted in the 1980′s. They revealed the ubiquitous formation of DON-glucuronides (DON-GlcA) SB203580 supplier by indirect methods and a significant difference in urinary excretion and glucuronidation between species ( Côté et al., 1986, Lake et al., 1987 and Prelusky et al., 1986). This species dependent variation was recently confirmed by an in vitro study investigating the hepatic metabolism of human and six animal liver microsome mixtures
( Maul et al., 2012). However, the first investigation of the human DON excretion click here pattern was performed in 2003, when total DON was proposed as a biomarker of exposure in urine after enzymatic hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase ( Meky et al., 2003). The developed indirect method was applied in various DON exposure studies (reviewed by Turner, 2010 and Turner et al., 2012) and additionally used to examine urinary metabolite profiles in 34 UK adults ( Turner et al., 2011). Urine samples previously analyzed for total DON after enzymatic hydrolysis were re-measured without this treatment to indirectly determine the amount of DON-glucuronide to be approximately 91% (range 85–98%) of total DON. Furthermore, total urinary DON
(sum of free DON + DON-GlcA) was validated as a biomarker of exposure with an average urinary excretion rate of 72% ( Turner et al., 2010). Recently, our group established an LC–MS/MS based method to directly quantify DON-GlcA in human urine using a chemically synthesized, NMR confirmed DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcA) reference standard ( Warth et al., 2011). Within the course of a pilot study to investigate DON exposure toward Austrian adults, we detected a second DON-glucuronide, which was tentatively identified as DON-15-GlcA. These results Baf-A1 in vivo were opposed to a previous work, which only could detect one DON-glucuronide in human urine by MS/MS experiments, which were based on theoretical masses ( Lattanzio et al., 2011). In the Austrian study, the newly identified metabolite DON-15-GlcA was shown to be the predominant conjugate, accounting for approximately 75% of total DON-glucuronide. The average glucuronidation rate was determined to be 86% (range 79–95%) ( Warth et al., 2012a). Fecal excretion of DON, mainly as its detoxified metabolite deepoxy-DON, was reported in cow, sheep, pig and rat ( Côté et al., 1986, Prelusky et al., 1986, Eriksen et al.